Professional development is a formal on-job training to upgrade the content knowledge and pedagogical skills of teachers
is widely viewed as an important means of improving teaching and learning. Opportunities for active learning, content knowledge, and the overall coherence of staff development are the top three
characteristics of professional development. Opportunities for active learning and content specific strategies for staff development refer to a focus on teacher application of learned material.
Overall coherence refers to the staff development program perceived as an integrated whole and development activities building upon each other in a consecutive fashion.